Quranic sentences remind me of the Transformers, you know the Autobots that came from the sky to save humanity. They can transform into trucks sports cars and other vehicles in just a few seconds. That’s what Quranic sentences do, transform hearts and minds in an instant, but shape society for centuries.
The potency of any message is determined by three things, what was said and who said it, and how it is said. Sentences in the Quran show how Allah presented his massage. That is why it is important to look at how sentences in the Quran convey its message
Generally, there are only two types of sentences in the Quran. One is nominal sentences that are sentences that are based on nouns or Jumlatul Ismiyyah. Secondly are verbal sentences or Jumlatul Fi’iliyyah. Learning about the mechanics of sentences doesn’t actually increase your iman at first but it gives you insights into how Allah arranges his message. When you see the unmatched consistency you realized no human in the world can come up with something like this.
The sentences are arranged in such a way that causes a paradigm shift and awaken the soul. What are the building blocks of Quranic sentences or specifically (noun based sentences) Jumlatul Ismiyyah?
There are only 3 components that make up a Jumlatul Ismiyyah? Here they are :
Mubtada the lead actor of the sentence
if you think a sentence Jumlatul Ismiyyah as a stage or even a movie then Mubtada is like the lead actor. So the whole story revolves around the Mubtada. This is how I best understand Mubtada. Grammatically, it’s English counterpart is the Subject of the sentence.
Now in Arabic, a Mubtada can be one word or more than one word. It also can be at the beginning of a sentence or at the end of sentences. If you were to translate a Jumalatul Ismiyyah (noun-based) sentence into English the part before words like is, was, were, or am is the Mubtada.
Let’s demonstrate that with a real sentence. Certainly, the messenger of Allah is merciful. Where is the Mubtada? The Mubtada all the words before the word is. In this case, the Mubtada is represented by Certainly, the messenger of Allah
You can easily, spot a Mubtada in the Quran. Whenever you see a Harf nasb and the word after it ends with a Fattah that is your Mubtada. Another way of recognizing Mubtada in the Quran is when you see a word which is rafa’. So you can identify a Mubtada when you either see a harf nasb and rafa.
Independent pronoun are also Mubtada. What is independent pronoun? You can refer to the 5-minute article on independent pronoun.
Khabar the Supporting role
The second component of Quranic sentences is known as Khabar or news. If Mubtada is like the lead actor then Khabar is like a supporting role without which the story would not be complete.
Khabar brings more information about the Mubtada in a sentence. Khabar also must be Rafa’. So when you are looking at a sentence in the Quran you, you first look for the Mubtada then you look for another word that is in a Rafa’ form. That is your Khabar. What if you see a word that is not Rafa’ but Jar. Would that be Khabar too? Well, any word that is not Rafa’ is not a Khabar, but they are the third component which is called Muta’aliq bil Khabar. This third component are words that is other than Mubtada and Khabar
Mubtada, Khabar and Mutaaliq bil Khabar in action
The best way to demonstrate this is from a sentence in the Quran. InnaAllaha ala kulli syain Qadirun which can be found in Ayah 77 in Surah An Nahl. Lets, analyze and find the Mubtada first. If we look, at the beginning of the sentence, the word Inna is harf of nasb and the word Allaha ends with a Fattah. So we see here InnaAllaha starts with the word inna which is a harf of nasb and Allaha ends with a Fattah. So the word InnaAllaha meets one of the two criteria of a Mubtada. So InnaAllaha must be the mubtada.
But how about the Khabar, we know that Khabar must be Rafa’ so in InnaAllaha ala kulli syain Qadirun the only Rafa’ word that could be found is Qadirun. So the word Qadirun is the khabar.
What about ala kulli syain? The are neither rafa or harf of nasb, so they are extra information or Mutaaliq bil Khabar.
Shahfizal Musa is the editor of Halalop. He graduated with a Law degree from Thames Valley University London. He is an award-winning journalist covering topics such as human trafficking, Muslim research discoveries, and exceptional Muslims.